Two Plus Two and the Need for Operators

The clearest indication that current linguistic theories are overly complex is that they are rarely taught in other college language departments, much less in the primary and secondary schools. In this book we have mentioned the copy connection or conjunction as a good example of the need for junctions or operators in describing natural language. The dominant linguistic theories use concatenation-only phrase structured grammars (PSG) at their foundation, forgetting as it were to bring along the arithmetic operators such as the plus and minus signs as they borrowed from mathematics.

In this chapter we will show diagrams comparing JG with various popular linguistics theories and methods of diagramming sentences. We do this only to show at an high level the difference in complexity and simplicity between these methods and the Junction Grammar approach. For example, here is a JG diagram of the simple sentence, two plus two equals four or two and two equals four

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